Stress at individual and social levels; distorts our cognition, affect, and conation (perception, feelings, and actions); and leads to, amongst many other evils; deterioration of international, national, and local education policy and its implementation. The present-day non-holistic (sectarian, prejudiced, vindictive, malicious, mercenary, exploitative, and malevolent) education (formal, curricular, co-curricular, extracurricular, and informal) is a major stressor that though it aids in petty pursuits; opposes our blossoming and further perpetuates stress and ill effects in the individual and social life. Let us review; the present perspective, policy, and practice of education, as seen around.
Even though education is defined in various ways; and often inadequately or incompletely, there has been a general agreement that education is basically a process of the blossoming of an individual and the society. Hence it included three domains, which are as follows. The first domain is called AFFECTIVE DOMAIN. This means the state of mind. In
simple words, the affective domain relates to how we feel. Thus when our mind is full of alertness, attention, enthusiasm, buoyancy, affection, concern, joy, tolerance, self-esteem, mutual respect, mutual trust, commitment, dedication, love, romance, confidence, positive and victorious spirit, we would call it healthy affective domain. In addition, the zeal and
concentration needed; in the pursuit of excellence in the intellectual field, tenacity and endurance required; in skillful activities and patience and commitment essential; for internally satisfying and socially beneficial (conscientious) actions constitute affective domain. The purpose of education is to nurture this domain by designing suitable curricula and syllabi.
The second domain of education is called PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN. This implies the ability to appreciate skills and perform physical and mental skills, with speed, accuracy, elegance, ease of performance, etc. This may involve appreciation and performance of skills such as surgery, playing a musical instrument, playing basketball, or carpentry! The purpose of education is to nurture this domain by designing suitable curricula and syllabi and providing sufficient practical and demonstration classes; with all the necessary equipment.
The third domain is called COGNITIVE DOMAIN. The cognitive domain incorporates accurate perspective, contemplation, correct perception understanding, conceptualization, analysis and recall of fact and problems, ability to evaluate, synthesize, correlate and make decisions, appropriate policies, plans, and expertise in the management, administration, etc. All these domains have three components, each viz. Cognition [Perception], affect [Feelings] and donation [Response].
Thus cognitive domain would have intellectual perception, clarity, and intellectual expression, an affective domain would include feeling, motivation, and response in an emotional sphere such as poetry; and the psychomotor domain would include the grasp and internalization of a particular skill, confidence, to perform it and actually performing it.
Let us now see, how in spite of these goals; how it has come to be conceived as a process of achieving political, economic, scientific and technological supremacy and thus deteriorated to the present stage; where all the three domains are defective; apart from lacking in the spiritual and productive domains. In short, let us see how it has become a major stressor.
For this, a brief consideration of the traditional education system in India would prove useful.
Traditional Education System in India in general; ensured that:
a] Careers were not selected on the basis of monetary gains,
b] Careers were not selected arbitrarily on the basis of idiosyncrasies and whims,
c] Some lucrative careers could not be sought after; in preference to the others,
d] All careers ensured income and production from the early age,
e] All careers ensured that the society was benefited,
f] All careers ensured security to all the social groups,
g] All the careers ensured intimacy and closeness between young and old in the families.
h] All careers ensured ethical education and passage of experience and wisdom; from generation to generation.
These were merits. But it is also true that the traditional system was apparently marked by deprivation of scholastic education on a mass scale, apparently unjustifiable availability of education of jobs based on caste, deficient infrastructure for collective scientific and technological efforts, and an element of arbitrary imposition of hierarchy.
The traditional education system has attained the present status of being a major stressor due to several stressful factors, including the onslaught of the tempting and impressive individualistic doctrines. Thus the transition from the traditional system to the present one (whether due to British, American or any other influence, but basically due to individualistic pursuits); has become a major stressor tearing apart.
The cohesive social fabric of India by failing to preserve and nurture the merits and discard and dispose of the demerits. As the education shifted from homes, home industries, and farms to; nurseries, K.G. schools, schools, colleges, universities, corporate industries, research institutions, etc., the transition became viciously poisonous.
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